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1939 Munich Agreement

07 Apr

But despite his promise to “no longer have territorial requirements in Europe,” Hitler was undeterred by appeasement. In March 1939, he violated the Munich Accords by occupying the rest of Czechoslovakia. Six months later, in September 1939, Germany invaded Poland and Britain was at war. During the Second World War, British Prime Minister Churchill, who opposed the agreement when it was signed, decided not to abide by the terms of the post-war agreement and to bring the Sudetenland back to post-war Czechoslovakia. On 5 August 1942, Foreign Minister Anthony Eden sent Jan Masaryk the following note: Shortly after Munich, 115,000 Czechs and 30,000 Germans fled into the hull of Czechoslovakia. [Citation required] According to the Institute for Refugee Assistance, the actual number of refugees as of 1 March 1939 was nearly 150,000. [88] On 28 September at 10 a.m., four hours before the deadline expired and without Hitler`s agreement at the request of Czechoslovakia, the British Ambassador to Italy, Lord Perth, convened an emergency meeting of Italian Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano. [37] Perth informed Ciano that Chamberlain had ordered him to ask Mussolini in the negotiations and ask Hitler to delay the ultimatum. [37] At 11:00 a.m., Ciano met With Mussolini and informed him of Chamberlain`s proposal; Mussolini agreed and responded by questioning the Italian ambassador to Germany and telling him: “Go immediately to Fuhrer`s house and tell him that I will be by his side, but that I ask for a 24-hour delay before hostilities begin. In the meantime, I will study what can be done to solve the problem.

[40] Hitler received Mussolini`s message during an interview with the French ambassador. Hitler told the ambassador: “My good friend, Benito Mussolini, asked me to delay the Marching Orders of the German Army by 24 hours, and I agreed. Of course, this was not a concession, since the invasion date was set for October 1, 1938. [41] After a meeting with Chamberlain, Lord Perth Mussolini and Chamberlain`s request thanked Mussolini for attending a four-power conference in Munich on 29 September from the United Kingdom, France, Germany and Italy to resolve the Sudetenland problem before the 14:00 deadline. Mussolini agreed. [41] Hitler`s only request was to have Mussolini involved in the negotiations of the conference. [41] When U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt learned that the conference was being held, he telegraphed Chamberlain: “Good Man.” [42] The Munich Convention was followed on 2 November 1938 by the First Prize of the Viennese, which separated from Czechoslovakia largely Hungarian and southern Czechoslovakia, while Poland also lowered parts of Czechoslovakia in the north. In March 1939, the First Slovak Republic was proclaimed and shortly thereafter Germany took full control of the other Czech parts by the creation of the protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. [4] As a result, Czechoslovakia had disappeared. On his way back from Munich, Chamberlain told an excited crowd at Heston airport: “It is peace for our time” and he praised the agreement he had signed with Hitler.

This was the culmination of the policy of appeasement. Six months later, Hitler stopped his promises and ordered his armies to invade Prague. Within a year, Britain and France were at war with Germany. With regard to the Munich agreement, the four leaders agreed that German troops would take control of the four territories and other “mainly German areas” between 1 and 10 October. 2 The agreement also provided for the creation of an international commission to hold a referendum in areas to be defined.